The conditions podiatrists treat include those caused by bone and joint disorders such as arthritis and soft-tissue and muscular pathologies as well as neurological and circulatory conditions. Podiatrists can also identify and treat almost any issues of the above which impact the lower limb, such as skin and nail disorders, corns, calluses and ingrown toenails. Foot injuries and infections gained via sport or any other activities are also identified and treated by podiatrists. Podiatrists own particular instrumentation for painless and effective treatment of these problems. For instance the surgical correction of chronically ingrown toe nails under local anaesthesia is a very common podiatric treatment. The initial treatment of these conditions should include conservative measures aimed at relieving the pain. These include casting for four weeks and the use of various shoe inserts and orthotics. The main indication for surgical resection is persistent pain. For calcaneonavicular coalition, resection of the bar with interposition of the extensor digitorum brevis is usually associated with good results 7 . Talocalcaneal coalition is more difficult to recognize and its surgical management is less certain 8 . The predominant radiographic findings are forefoot adduction with lateral subluxation of the navicular on the talus and heel valgus. Children present with pain, intractable callosities and abnormal shoe wear. Treatment During the movement screen, we examine your foot to determine if the movement in your foot is optimal. Specifically, the most common type of dysfunction in the foot that can lead to energy leaks is a pes planus. Pes planus, or flat feet, is a very common finding among the general population. When dynamically tested, individuals with pes planus will exhibit turning out of their feet and a collapse of the main arch of their feet (longitudinal arch). This finding can also contribute to the other findings within the movement screen. Sometimes the length of your hamstrings and heel cords are normal, but your brain perceives them to be tight. Although it's not yet known why your nervous system behaves this way, exercise scientists proposed a sensory theory to explain the behavior. A study published in the March 2010 issue of "Physical Therapy" stated that subjects who completed a three- to eight-week stretching program had a modified sensation in their flexibility rather than actual changes to the length of their muscles. Therefore, the tightness sensation may be just in your head rather than the shortening of your hamstrings and heel cords. Self-Myofascial Release A normal foot forms an arch when one is standing, and this is formed by the bones which are supported by ligaments and tendons. The foot’s longitudinal arch allows the inner part of the foot to be slightly raised above the ground. People with flat feet (also called pes planus) have fallen arches, so that the gap under the foot is lost. Anatomy of the Foot With constant stretching and strain on the plantar fascia, inflammation may occur, a condition called plantar fasciitis. Repeated pulling on the insertion of the ligament on the heel or calcaneus may lead to heel pain, which is the most common effect of plantar fasciitis. Diagnosis usually involve a physical exam of the foot. This will often include testing of muscle strength and observation of gait. X-rays will be ordered to evaluate the extent of the flatfoot and which of the cardinal planes is dominate. The muscles, tendons and ligaments of your feet can degenerate and lead to flatfeet as you age. Untreated flatfeet may cause secondary problems such as overpronation, poor ankle alignment, altered running mechanics and ultimately ankle pain and injury. Treatment will not only have to address your current ankle pain and injury, but your flatfeet as well. Consult a podiatrist for a diagnosis and treatment plan. Pes Planus Many children may reach 8 to 10 years old, or older, before they start to complain of pain in their feet. They may shy away from running or other physical activities because of the pain or discomfort in their feet. By avoiding the problem in this manner, an individual can put themselves at risk for much more pain and greater damage to their feet latter in life. A customized orthotic, or shoe insert made specifically for your foot, can help a young child develop an arch and proper foot mechanics as they grow. The orthotic helps the foot to function in better alignment allowing form to follow function. An ankle sprain, tendinitis and arthritis can also cause ankle pain while running and may be unrelated to your flatfeet. Another possible cause of ankle pain is tarsal tunnel syndrome and is when your posterior tibial nerve in your ankle becomes impinged and inflamed. Although many believe flatfeet increases your risk of lower extremity injury including ankle injuries, a 2003 "British Journal of Sports Medicine" article found no link between flatfeet and injury. Additional risk factors may include your age and weight, a previous ankle injury, training level and diabetes. Treatment Support - Podiatrists understand that poor support in shoes or boots can increase plantar fasciitis pain. Kuru's are perfect for plantar fasciitis simply because they have orthotic-quality support with a deep heel cup and arch support built straight into the footbed and insole. Any support from a good orthotic, arch support, or taping should be described as a temporary modality while an individual strengthen and lengthen the particular tissues. Over-the-counter arch supports might be useful in patients with acute plantar fasciitis as well as mild pes planus About the Author What’re Osteophytes (Bone Spurs)? Osteophytes, also known as bone spurs, develop in bones broken by arthritis (such as the foot). Barefoot running is great, the only problem is that more ad more people are transitionig from normal shoes to barefoot vibram 5 finger style running shoes too harshly. What is needed is some degree of strengthening before moving onto this style of shoe. You can buy trainers that are transition style trainers to help with this however at some point you are going to have to wear normal shoes at work for example. This is where the Barefoot science will help, as you work your way through the 5 steps of barefoot science you’ll find it easier to run in your barefoot 5 finger trainers. See here for more info.